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section heading icon     1951 to 1965

This page of the timeline covers -

section marker     1951

1.5 million television sets in US


US Defence Department establishes ASTIA

Suzanne Briet's Qu'est-ce que la documentation?

Wang Laboratories founded

Geophysical Service Inc becomes Texas Instruments

Manchester Mark 1 computer in UK

Perry & Casey's Punched Cards: Their Application to Science & Industry

'brainwashing' coined

merger of Bank of Australasia with Union Bank of Australia to form ANZ Bank

still cameras get built-in flash units

Arrow's Social Choice & Individual Values

coaxial cable reaches coast to coast in the US

Australian Financial Review founded

Treaty of Paris establishes European Coal & Steel Community

section marker     1952

Bing Crosby's company tests magnetic tape video recording

Nixdorf Computer founded

Berle's The Developing Law of Corporate Concentration

Turing's chess-playing program

Deniker's report on Chlorpromazine

US government sues IBM for monopolizing punched-card machine industry

US National Science Foundation establishes Office of Scientific Information (OSI)

Institute of Scientific Information established by Soviet Academy of Sciences

Sony produces first transistor radios

Univac projects the winner of the presidential election on CBS

Zenith proposes pay-TV system using punched cards

John Diebold's Automation, the advent of the automatic factory

MIT Symposium on Machine Techniques for Information Selection

section marker     1953

first issue of TV Guide

IBM 701 is first IBM electronic digital computer

Fairfax grabs Associated Newspapers

United States v Reynolds

Commonwealth entertainment tax abolished

National Cash Register enters computer market through purchase of Computer Research Corporation

section marker     1954

Village (later Village Roadshow) media group founded

FORTRAN created by John Backus

IBM markets 650 computer, using drum storage

UNIVAC I becomes commercially available

USSR launches Sputnik

Eastman Kodak announces Minicard System

Commodore founded

regular colour TV broadcasts begin in the US

TV ad revenue exceeds radio revenue in US for first time

Robert Borkenstein patents breathalyser

first demonstration of computer-based searching of bibliographic file on regular basis

section marker     1955

NBC president David Sarnoff says "Television will never be a medium of entertainment"

Entores Ltd v Miles Far East Corporation [UK]

Disneyland opened

Remington-Rand & Sperry Gyroscope merge as Sperry-Rand

Theodore Gary and Associated Telephone Utilities merge as General Telephone Corp. later GTE

Kubie & Sheldon found Computer Usage Corporation (CUC)

William Shockley founds Shockley Semiconductor

rebranding sees start of Marlboro Man campaign

first fluoride toothpaste, Crest

music recorded on tape in stereo

section marker     1956

television broadcasting in Australia

Interstate Highway Act in US

first transatlantic telephone cable

television in 71% of US households

est. 59m phones in US

Khrushchev denounces Stalin at 20th Congress of the CPSU

first hard disk drive at IBM

3,200 MBA degrees awarded in the US

launch of Australian National Bibliographic Centre

IBM settles punch card dispute through DOJ consent decree

Australia's SILLIAC and UTECOM computers go live

Ampex builds practical videotape recorder

first use of "Elvis has left the building"

Bell Labs tests picture phone

first transatlantic telephone calls by cable

term 'artificial intelligence' devised

Burroughs Adding Machine Company enters computer market through purchase of Electrodata

Bill Fair and Earl Isaac found Fair Isaac

Friedman's Restatement of the Quantity Theory

Rank-Xerox established

National Bank of Australasia buys Ballarat Banking Company

section marker     1957

Treaty of Rome establishes European Economic Community

Control Data Corporation (CDC) formed

Digital Equipment (DEC) formed

Fairchild Semiconductor formed by Kleiner, Noyce, Moore, Blank, Grinich, Hoerni, Last and Roberts

Soviet Union's Sputnik sends signals from space

first Japanese car sold in US

FORTRAN becomes first high-level computer language

UNIVAC II marketed

Sony TR63 is first pocket transistor radio

surgical operation is televised

Vance Packard's The Hidden Persuaders

Chomsky's Syntactic Structures

Datamation launched

first book to be entirely phototypeset is offset printed

RAND establishes SDC

Ferranti sells radio and television operations to Ekco

section marker     1958

US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) founded

NAACP v. Alabama ex. Rel. Patterson [US]

US National Federation of Science Abstracting & Indexing Services founded

first chess game between computer and human

Minsky founds AI Lab at MIT

Great Leap Forward in China results in death of 20 million people

IBM's Robert Bemer introduces backslash character

first cardiac pacemaker implanted

Warner Bros records formed

UNIMATE is first industrial robot

colour videotape recording

Young's The Rise of the Meritocracy

2.5 million television sets in USSR

Italian telephone companies consolidated in STET group

laser invented at Bell Labs

integrated circuit

cable carries FM radio stations

Galbraith's The Affluent Society

Bank of America launches first US credit card

AMP adopts IBM 650

AT&T markets first modems

BA publishes first computerized subject index

International Computers & Tabulators Ltd (ICT) formed in UK through merger of Powas-Samas and BTM

section marker     1959

local ads go on cable TV in the US

Chappell & Co Ltd v The Nestlé Co Ltd [UK]

General Telephone merges with Sylvania Electric Products

Haloid Company (Xerox) first automatic paper copier

"A Mars a day helps you work, rest and play"

French SECAM and German PAL television systems

Tisch brothers buy Loews cinema chain from MGM

first packaged program sold by Computer Science Corporation

DEC develops first minicomputer, PDP 1

Antarctic Treaty

Carrefour founded by Marcel Fournier and Louis Defforey

National Semiconductor formed

Applied Data Research (ADR) founded

Feynman articulates concept of nanotechnology

Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) founded

The Manchurian Candidate

section marker     1960

computer industry has first billion dollar year

Fisher v Bell [UK]

UN Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries & Peoples

IBM markets 1401 computer

R v Penguin Books Ltd [UK]

Rostow's The Stages of Economic Growth

UNIVAC III marketed

Levitt's Marketing Myopia

6,000 computers in operation in US

Coles buys Matthews Thompson grocery chain

Clynes & Kline invent term 'cyborg'

Macdonald's Masscult and Midcult

first demonstration of machine searching of full text information

Echo I, US balloon in orbit, reflects radio signals to Earth

McGregor's The Human Side of Enterprise

Zenith tests subscription TV in the US

Murdoch buys Sydney Daily Mirror

launch of Australian National Bibliography (ANB)

one lawyer for every 307 people in US

Santillana de Ediciones founded

section marker     1961

Haloid Xerox becomes Xerox Corporation

Overseas Tankship (UK) Ltd v Morts Dock & Engineering Co [UK]

GEC buys Radio & Allied Industries (RAI), sells computer interests to ICT

Myer buys Farmer's group

black box flight recorder invented

first electronic game - Spacewars - from MIT

US boxing match test shows potential of pay-TV

FCC approves FM stereo broadcasting

Kleinrock's Information Flow in Large Communications Nets packet switching paper

American Standards Association publishes first US accessibility standard

patents registered by USPTO reach 3 million mark

IBM introduces 'golf ball' typewriter

time-sharing computer developed

Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations

Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development founded

Amnesty International founded

Jane Jacobs' The Death and Life of Great American Cities

supposed alien abduction of Betty Hill

section marker     1962

MEDLARS online bibliographical database


Ross Perot founds Electronic Data Systems EDS

Advanced Computer Techniques (ACT) founded

California Analysis Centers, Inc (CACI) founded

Informatics, Inc founded

Olivetti acquires 95% of Olivetti-Bull

ICT buys EMI's computer interests

Harvard Business School allows women MBA students

Telstar satellite transmits TV image across Atlantic

Western Union offers Telex for international teleprinting

first Visa credit card

McLuhan's The Gutenberg Galaxy

Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

Machlup's Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the US

Carson's Silent Spring

Xerox acquires University Microfilms

8.5 phones per 100 Italians

section marker     1963

audio tape cassette

Hedley Byrne & Co v Heller & Partners [UK]

Hofstadter's Anti-Intellectualism in American Life

SRI establishes data link with SDC

Ridge v Baldwin [UK]

Boston Consulting Group formed

Applied Data Systems (later ADPAC) founded

Management Science America, Inc. (MSA) founded

English Electric Leo formed through merger of English Electric computer operations with Leo Computers

ICT buys Ferranti's computer interests

first Canada-New Zealand telephone cable

MEDLARS (Medical Literature Analysis & Retrieval System) launched

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) introduced

Zip codes started in US

Minsky's Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence

CBS and NBC TV newscasts expand to 30 minutes in colour

Polaroid instant colour photographs

communications satellite is placed in geo-synchronous orbit

est 81 million phones in US; world total est 159.2 million

OECD Model Income Tax Convention becomes foundation of contemporary global tax agreements

Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique

section marker     1964

Dr Strangelove

Murdoch starts The Australian

Baran's On Distributed Communications Networks paper

Moore's Law about processing power

IBM markets system 360 computer

Informatics Inc buys Advanced Information Systems (AIS) from Hughes

Manifesto of the Ad Hoc Committee on the Triple Revolution

English Electric Leo merges with Marconi computer operationss

Kemeny invents BASIC

Olympic Games in Tokyo telecast live globally by satellite

Touch Tone telephones and Picturephone service

first domestic videotape recorder

Intelsat established

Oz censorship trial in Australia

Englebart develops the mouse

Data Corporation (becomes Lexis Corporation) established

General Electric buys Bull

section marker     1965

cigarette ads banned on UK television

Schlatter discovers aspartame

Volkswagen buys Audi

ITT Corporation buys Avis for US$51m

Simon predicts "machines will be capable of doing any work a man can do" by 1985

Penthouse founded

Intelsat I (Early Bird satellite)

Ted Nelson coins the term 'hypertext'

Licklider's Libraries of the Future

McLuhan's Understanding Media

Kodak offers Super 8 film for home movies

Griswold v Connecticut identifies latent right of sexual privacy within US Constitution

cartridge audio tapes

Computer Corporation of America (CCA) founded

Hofstadter's The Paranoid Style in American Politics

Tymshare founded

Keane, Inc software founded

Commonwealth Trade Practices Act 1965 in Australia

Nader's Unsafe At Any Speed

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version of December 2003
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