page looks at industry, academic and government studies
of copyright collecting societies and collective intellectual
property rights administration.
It covers -
There are no major academic overviews of collecting societies
at a global level, although insights are offered in more
restricted accounts of particular organisations such as
GEMA or SACEM. An overview is provided by WIPO's document
Collective Management of Copyright and Related Rights.
Most of the academic attention has focussed on the music
sector, presumably because of the interaction of bundles
of rights/uses (and thus societies) and the size of the
market. There is a useful overview in Collecting Societies
in the Music Business (Apeldoorn: Maklu 1989) edited
by David Peeperkorn & Cees van Rij.
La gestion collective du droit d'auteur en Europe
(Basle: Helting &
Lichtenhahn 1995), edited by Reto Hilty, offers insights
into the EU regimes.
and industry studies
Ruth Towse's 2001 Copyright & the Cultural Industries:
Incentives and Earnings paper (PDF)
offers estimates about the value of IP in the music sector
and how the pie is sliced.
Harold Vogel's Entertainment Industry Economics
(Cambridge: Cambridge Uni Press 1998), Richard Caves'
Creative Industries: Contracts Between Art & Commerce
(Cambridge: Harvard Uni Press 2000) and Mancur Olson's
bleak The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods
and the Theory of Groups (Cambridge: Harvard Uni Press
1971) discuss licensing principles and practices.
A perspective is provided by Shane Simpson's Music
Business (London: Omnibus 2002) and The Composer
in the Market Place (London: Faber 1975) by Alan Peacock
& Ronald Weir.
The 1998 paper
on New Strategy Combinations in the Intellectual Property
Rights Arena: The Challenge to Established Principles
of Reciprocity & Solidarity in Music Copyright
by Roger Wallis, Charles Baden-Fuller, Martin Kretschmer
& George Klimis highlights reciprocity and competition
questions. The Global Music Industry in the Digital
Environment: A Study of Strategic Intent & Policy
Responses 1996-99 (PDF)
by Kretschmer, Klimis & Wallis and The Interface Between
Intellectual Property Rights and Competition Policy
(Cambridge: Cambridge Uni Press 2007) edited by Steven
Anderman are particularly valuable. Fabrice Rochelandet's
2002 Are copyright collecting societies efficient?
An Evaluation of Collective Administration of Copyright
in Europe (PDF)
offers another economic perspective.
More jaundiced accounts of high times and dodgy accounting
in the music sector are highlighted here.
A view from UNCTAD is provided in the 2000 Copyrights,
Competition & Development: The Case of the Music Industry
by Birgitte Andersen, Zeljka Kozul-Wright & Richard
Kozul-Wright. Comments about futures are provided in Ariel
Katz's 2004 paper
The Potential Demise of another Natural
Monopoly: New Technologies and the Future of Collective
Administration of Copyrights.
Some of the most valuable writing about collective administration
is found in government reviews of national legislation,
collective administration regimes and the operation of
Examples include the Australian 1995 Review of Australian
Copyright Collecting Societies report,
the Intellectual Property & Competition Review Committee
on IP, the Report
on Implementation and operation of the APRA complimentary
licence scheme and the UK Merger & Monopoly Commission's
1996 Performing rights: a report on the supply in
the UK of the services of administering performing rights
& film synchronisation rights. The Australian
Copyright Law Review Committee (CLRC)
on the relationship between contract and copyright law
is also of value.
Much of the writing about the evolution and operation
of particular collective administration bodies has been
triumphalist and is not readily available.
Works are particular significance include-
Coover's Music Publishing, Copyright & Piracy
in Victorian England (London: Mansell 1985)
Cyril Ehrlich's Harmonious Alliance: A History of
the Performing Right Society (Oxford: Oxford Uni
Benjamin Kaplan's An Unhurried View of Copyright
(New York: Columbia Uni Press 1968)
Lyman Patterson's Copyright In Historical Perspective
(Nashville: Vanderbilt Uni Press)
Peter Shillingsburg's Pegasus In Harness: Victorian
Publishing & W M Thackeray (Charlottesville:
Uni Press of Virginia 1991)
Simon Novell-Smith's International Copyright Law
& the Publisher in the Reign of Queen Victoria
(Oxford: Clarendon Press 1968)
Pointers to works on the broader history of copyright
are found in the Intellectual Property guide
elsewhere on this site