studies of bullying
page highlights points of entry to the literature regarding
bullying, in particular cyberbullying of/by the young.
It covers -
Increasing recognition of bullying as a management issue
(on the basis of potential litigation, reputational damage
and loss of resources), human rights concern, area of
litigation and aspect of childhood has been reflected
in the emergence of a wide literature.
That writing ranges from self-help primers with a strong
pop-psychology flavour through to rigorously empirical
studies, legal analysis (typically biased towards employer/guardian
liability for torts of physical and psychological injury)
and academic research about online interaction. Studies
on cyber-bullying in and around schools are thus enjoying
something of a vogue.
The following pagraphs are not comprehensive. They offer
points of entry to the literature, selected because they
are insightful or because they are representative of ways
that bullying is conceptualised and addressed.
Later pages of this note highlight works of particular
significance regarding specific areas of bullying, for
example within the electronic playground and in the military.
The literature on workplace bullying, variously defined,
is extensive but often inward-looking and even polemical.
Items of particular interest include 'The Public Sector:
An Environment Prone To Bullying?' by Maryam Omari in
1(2) Public Policy (2006), Safeguarding the
Organisation Against Violence & Bullying: An International
Perspective (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan 2004)
edited by Paul McCarthy & Claire Mayhew; Bullying
From Backyard To Boardroom (Leichhardt: Federation
Press 2001) edited by Paul McCarthy & Jane Rylance;
Workplace Bullying: What we know, who is to blame
and what we can do (London: Taylor & Francis
2002) by Charlotte Rayner, Helge Hoel & Cary Cooper;
Mobbing: Emotional Abuse in the American Workplace
(Ames: Civil Society 2002) by Noa Davenport, Ruth Schwartz
& Gail Elliott; Bullying & Emotional Abuse
in the Workplace: International Perspectives on Research
& Practice (London: Taylor & Francis 2003)
by Stale Einarsen, Helge Hoel, Dieter Zapf & Cary
Cooper; and Workplace Mobbing in Academe: Reports
from Twenty Universities (Lewiston: Edward Mellen
2005) edited by Kenneth Westhues; Adult Bullying:
Perpetrators and Victims (London: Routledge 1997)
by Peter Randall, 'Nightmares, demons, and slaves: Exploring
the painful metaphors of workplace bullying' by Tracy,
Lutgen-Sandvik & Alberts in 20(2) Management Communication
Quarterly (2006) 1-38 and 1999 'Workplace Bullying
in Australia: A Review of Current Conceptualisations and
Existing Research' (PDF)
by Robyn Kieseker & Teresa Marchant.
Other works include 2008 'Workplace Mobbing: Experiences
in the Public Sector (PDF)
by Linda Shallcross, Michael Sheehan & Sheryl Ramsay,
'Young Workers at Risk: Overlaps Between Initiation Rites,
Pranks, Bullying, Sexual Harassment and Occupational Violence'
by Claire Mayhew in 23(4) Journal of Occupational
Health & Safety Australia and New Zealand (2007)
333-341, 'Bullying at work: implementing industry self-regulation
guidelines' by Paul McCarthy in 15(5) Journal of Occupational
Health & Safety - Australia and New Zealand (1999)
417-422, 'Mental health and workplace bullying: The role
of power, professions and 'on the job' training' by Lynn
Turney in 2(2) Australian e-Journal for the Advancement
of Mental Health (2003) 1-8, 'On the culture of student
abuse in medical school' by Donald Kassebaum & Ellen
Cutler in 73 Academic Medicine (1998) 1149-1158,
'Bullying: An unrecognized road much travelled by nurses'
by Lynette Sunderland & Lynne Hunt in 9(2) Australian
Nursing Journal (2001) 39-41, 'The Silent Epidemic:
Workplace bullying in Ieland and Australia' (PDF)
by Glennis Hanley, Phil Benson & Brad Gilbreath and
'Towards Dignity and Respect at Work: An exploration of
bullying in the public sector' (PDF)
by Maryam Omari.
Some management and psychological studies include 'The
behavioral reactions of victims to different types of
workplace bullying' by Nikola Djurkovic, Darcy McCormack
& Gian Casimir in 8 International Journal of Organization
Theory and Behavior (2005) 439-460 and their 'Workplace
bullying and intention to leave: The moderating effect
of perceived organisational support' in 18 Human Resource
Management Journal (2008) 405-422, 'Workplace Bullying
and Victimization: The Influence of Organizational Context,
Shame and Pride' (PDF)
by Valerie Braithwaite, Eliza Ahmed & John Braithwaite
in 13(2) International Journal of Organisational Behaviour
(2005) 71-94, 'Towards Employee Wellness: Rethinking Bullying
Paradoxes and Masks' by Margaret Vickers in 18(4) Employee
Responsibilities & Rights Journal (2006) 267-281,
'Dress to Impress: Employer Regulation of Gay and Lesbian
Appearance' by Paul Skidmore in 8(4) Social &
Legal Studies (1999) 509-530 and 'Managers in the
firing line: Contributing factors to workplace bullying
by staff: an interview study' (PDF)
by Sarah Branch, Cheryl Ramsay & Michelle Barker.
Legal perspectives are offered in Des Butler's Employer
Liability for Workplace Trauma (Aldershott: Ashgate
Press 2002), in 'Young Workers at Risk: Overlaps Between
Initiation Rites, Pranks, Bullying, Sexual Harassment
and Occupational Violence' by Claire Mayhew in 23(4) Journal
of Occupational Health & Safety Australia and New
Zealand (2007) 333-341, 'The Distinction Between
Workplace Bullying and Workplace Violence and the Ramifications
for Occupational Health and Safety' (PDF)
and 'Workplace Violence: Cause for Concern or the Construction
of a New Category of Fear' by Elizabeth Mullen in 39(1)
Journal of Industrial Relations (1997).
Primers for victims and human resource managers include
Bullying in the Workplace: an Occupational Hazard
by Helene Richards & Sheila Freeman (Sydney:
HarperCollins 2002) and Bullying at Work: How to Confront
and Overcome It (London: Virago 1992) by Andrea Adams
As with workplace bullying there is a vast but uneven
literature, much devoted to the psychology of perpetrators
and victims. Writing about online harassment is often
sensationalist, with an emphasis on anecdote and little
appreciation of legal frameworks or the implications of
proposed technological fixes.
Works of particular interest include Cyber-Dilemmas:
Gendered Hierarchies of Power in a Virtual School Environment
by Shaheen Shariff & Rachel Gouin; 'Definitions of
bullying: A comparison of terms used, and age and gender-difference,
in a fourteen-country international comparison' by Smith,
Cowie, Olafsson & Liefooghe in 73 Child Development
(2002) 1119-1133; 'Bullying is a serious issue: It is
a crime!' by David Ford in 4(1) Australian & New
Zealand Journal of Law & Education (1999); Dan
Olweus' Bullying at school: What we know and what
we can do (Cambridge: Blackwell 1993), Ken Rigby's
'What children tell us about bullying in schools' in 22(2)
Children Australia (1997); C J Pascoe's Dude,
You're a Fag: Masculinity and Sexuality in High School
(Berkeley: University of California Press 2007); The
nature of school bullying: A cross national perspective
(London: Routledge 1999) edited by Smith, Morita, Junger-Tas,
Olweus, Catalano & Slee; 'Sticks and stones may break
my bones, but names will make me sick: The psychosocial,
somatic, and scholastic consequences of peer harassment'
by Adrienne Nishina, Jaana Juvonen & Melissa Witkow
in 34 Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
(2005) 37-48; The Anti-Bullying Handbook (Auckland:
Oxford Uni Press 2000) by Keith Sullivan and 'Bullying
as a group process: participant roles and their relations
to social status within the group' by Christina Salmivalli,
Kirsti Lagerspetz, Kaj Bjorkqvist & Ari Kaukiaininen
in 28(1) Aggressive Behaviour (2006) 30-44.
Among the literature on hazing see Wrongs of Passage:
Fraternities, Sororities, Hazing and Binge Drinking
(Bloomington: Indiana Uni Press 2001) and The Hazing Reader
(Bloomington: Indiana Uni Press 2004) by Hank Nuwer, 'Traumatic
injuries caused by hazing practices' by Michelle Finkel
in 20(3) American Journal of Emergency Medicine
(2002) 228-233, 'After The Haze: Legal Aspects of Hazing'
by Colleen Mcglone & George Schaefer in 6(1) Entertainment
and Sports Law Journal (2008) here
and 'Death by fraternity hazing' by Lauren Boglioli &
Mark Taff in 16(1) American Journal of Forensic Medicine
and Pathology (1995) 42-44.
Historical perspectives on inter-child violence, within
and outside the school, are provided in the controversial
Centuries of Childhood: A Social History of Family
Life (New York: Vintage 1962) by Philippe Aries
and The History of Childhood (New York: Psychohistory
Press 1974) by Lloyd De Mause, Edward Shorter's The
Making of the Modern Family (New York: Fontana 1977),
Medieval Children (New Haven: Yale Uni Press
1974) by Nicholas Orme, The Old School Tie (New
York: Viking 1977) by Jonathan Gathorne-Hardy and The
Rise of the English Prep School (London: Taylor &
Francis 1984) by Donald Leinster-Mackay.
Contemporary research on bullying by kids and its implications
includes the 2007 Barnardos' Young people's experiences
of, and solutions to, identity related bullying report
'Snakes and Leaders: Hegemonic Masculinity in Ruling-Class
Boys' Boarding Schools' by Scott Poynting & Mike Donaldson
in 7(4) Men and Masculinities (2005) 325-346
Stop the Bullying: A Handbook for Schools (Melbourne:
Australian Council for Educational Research 2003) by Ken
Rigby, 'Teachers Who Bully Students: A Hidden Trauma'
by Stuart Twemlow, Peter Fonagy, Frank Sacco & John
Brethour in 52(3) International Journal of Social
Psychiatry (2006) 187-198, Bullying: Implications
for the Classroom (New York: Academic Press 2004)
by Cheryl Sanders & Gary Phye, Sexual Bullying:
Gender Conflict and Pupil Culture in Secondary Schools
(London: Routledge 1999) by Neil Duncan and Understanding
and Managing Bullying (Oxford: Heinemann 1993) by
elders and betters
Among works on senior abuse see Elder Abuse Work:
Best Practice in Britain and Canada (London: Jessica
Kingsley 1999) edited by Jacki Pritchard.
Perspectives on sexual violence and bullying include Patricia
Easteal's Balancing the Scales: Rape, Law Reform and
Australian Culture (Leichhardt: Federation Press
1998) and David Heilpern's Fear of favour: sexual
assault of young prisoners (Lismore: Southern Cross
Uni Press 1998).
Historical accounts of bad behaviour in religious institutions
include The Burdens of Sister Margaret (New York:
Doubleday 1994) by Craig Harline, Religious Women
in Golden Age Spain: The Permeable Cloister (Aldershot:
Ashgate 2005) by Elizabeth Lehfeldt.
The literature on cyberbullying remains thin. Works include
Cyber Bullying (Oxford: Blackwell 2007) by Robin
Kowalski, Susan Limber & Patti Agatson; Shaheen Shariff's
Cyber-Bullying: Issues and Solutions for the School,
the Classroom and the Home (London: Routledge 2008);
'Bullies Move beyond the Schoolyard: A Preliminary Look
at Cyberbullying' by Justin Patchin & Sameer Hinduja
in 4(2) Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice (2006)
148-169; their 'Cyberbullying: An Exploratory Analysis
of Factors Related to Offending and Victimization' in
29(2) Deviant Behavior (2008) 129-156 or Bullying
Beyond the Schoolyard: Preventing and Responding to Cyberbullying
(Thousand Oaks: Sage 2009); and 'Extending the school
ground? Bullying experiences in cyberspace?' by Jaana
Juvonen & Elisheva Gross in 78 Journal of School
Health (2008) 496-505.
Other works include 'Cyberbullying and online harassment:
Reconceptualizing the victimization of adolescent girls'
by Justin Patchin & Amanda Burgess-Proctor in Female
crime victims: Reality reconsidered (Upper Saddle
River: Prentice Hall 2008); 'Examining characteristics
and associated distress related to Internet harassment:
Findings from the Second Youth Internet Safety Survey'
by Ybarra, Mitchell, Finkelhor & Wolak in 118(4) Pediatrics
(2007) 1169-1177; 'Cyber-bullying and schools in an electronic
era' by Sharon Tettegah, Diana Betout & Kona Taylor
in Technology and Education: Issues in administration,
policy and applications in k12 schools (London: Elsevier
2006) 17-28; 'Assessing Concerns and Issues about the
Mediation of Technology in Cyberbullying' by Wannes Heirman
& Michel Walrave in 2(2) Cyberpsychology: Journal
of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace (2008); 'Surf
and turf wars online: Growing implications of Internet
gang violence' by Jonathan King, Carolyn Walpole &
Kristi Lamon in 41(6) Journal of Adolescent Health
(2007) 66-68; 'Student's perspectives on cyber bullying'
by Patti Agatson, Robin Kowalski & Susan Limber in
41(6) Journal of Adolescent Health (2007) 59-60;
and 'Electronic bullying among middle school students'
by Kowalski & Limber in 41(6) Journal of Adolescent
Health (2007) 22-30.
Works on polling as bullying include 'Unsolicited Commercial
E-Mail, Privacy Concerns Related to Social Network Services,
Online protection of Children and Cyberbullying' by Usha
Munukutla-Parker in 2 I/S: A Journal of Law and Policy
for the Information Society (2006) 627-650. Other
resources on suspensions regarding use of social network
services are here.
'Social Networking Websites - A Concatenation of Impersonation,
Denigration, Sexual Aggressive Solicitation, Cyber-Bullying
or Happy Slapping Videos' by Bruce Mann in International
Journal of Law & Information Technology 2008
is deliciously hyperbolic.
Differing ways in which bullying can be conceptualised
and different remedies under discrimination, workplace
safety, criminal and other law mean that there is no single
Australian primer covering bullying in jurisdictions and
environments (eg in factories, offices, the defence force,
aged care facilities and schoolyard).
In relation to bullying of children a useful introduction
to the Australian legal regime is provided by Des Butler
& Ben Mathews' Schools and the Law (Leichhardt:
Federation Press 2007) and 'Bullying in the Playground:
A School's Liability' by David Fleming in 40 Youth
Law Review (1998).
For an introduction to Australian criminal and civil law
see Principles of Criminal Law (Pyrmont: Lawbook
Co 2005) by Simon Bronitt & Bernadette McSherry and
Law of Torts (Chatswood: LexisNexis Butterworths
2004) by Rosalie Balkin & J Davis. Des Butler's Damages
for Psychiatric Injury (Leichhardt: Federation Press
2004) is of value.
Other works of interest include Schools, Courts and
the Law: Managing Student Welfare (London: Pearson
2002) by Douglas Stewart & Andrew Knott and 'Why homophobia
needs to be named in bullying policy' (PDF)
by Lynne Hillier & Anne Mitchell.
There has been little discussion of cyberbullying in Australian
law journals, arguably a reflection of the dynamics of
legal publishing in the US, Australia and other jurisdictions.
Overseas works include 'Cyberbullying, Cyber-harassment,
and the Conflict between Schools and the First Amendment'
by Renee Servannce in Wisconsin Law Review (2003),
'Repercussions of a Myspace Teen Suicide: Should Anti-Cyberbullying
Laws be Created' by Matthew Ruedy in 9 North Carolina
Journal of Law & Technology (2008), 'The New
Playground Bullies of Cyberspace: Online Peer Sexual Harassment'
by Stacy Chaffin in 51 Howard Law Journal (2008),
Article 'Defamation and the Quiescent Anarchy of the Internet:
A Case Study of Cyber Targeting' by David Myers in 110
Penn State Law Review (2006), 'Cyberbullying:
The Interactive Playground Cries for a Clarification of
the Communications Decency Act' by Cara Ottenweller in
41 Valparaiso University Law Review (2007), 'Cyberbullying
and other High-tech Crimes Involving Teens' by Patrick
Corbett in 12(3) Journal of Internet Law (2008),
'Cyber-Libel and Cyber-Bullying: Can Schools Protect Student
Reputations and Free-Expression in Virtual Environments?'
by Shaheen Shariff & Leanne Johnny in 16 Education
& Law Journal (2007)
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