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section heading icon     1881 to 1900

This page of the timeline covers -

section marker     1881

death of Billy the Kid

Postal Orders introduced in UK

first New Zealand telephone exchange in Christchurch

first successful long-distance telephone line (Boston-Providence, US)

Commercial Bank of Australia buys Mercantile Bank, Sydney

section marker     1882

first wirephotos

Union Générale in France crashes

Hobart Stock Exchange opens

first national US ad (by P&G for Ivory soap)

289 million passengers on US railways

Stillwell invents brown paper bag

Austria establishes world's first postal Giro money transfer

Bell Labs established

section marker     1883

S Z de Ferranti Ltd founded

Munster v Lamb

last known Quagga in captivity dies in Amsterdam Zoo

Galton's Inquiries into Human Faculty

Union for the Protection of Industrial Property

Deutsche Edison Gesellschaft (DEG) founded by Emil Rathenau

section marker     1884

early version of television technology - Nipkow scanning disk

Post Office Protection Act in UK

R. v Dudley and Stephens

long distance telephone calls

electric tabulator

Huysmans' A Rebours

Waterman's fountain pen

Brisbane Stock Exchange opens

establishment of Fabian Society in UK

International Meridian Conference

establishment of Imperial Federation League in UK

first US roller-coaster

section marker     1885

von Welsbach patents incandescent mantle

AT&T formed

establishment of Colonial Defence Committee in UK

Marquand's electric Logic Machine

Criminal Law Amendment Act in UK

cylinder-based dictating machines

coated photo printing paper made by Eastman

Pasteur's rabies vaccine

section marker     1886

Mergenthaler's linotype machine

Sears Roebuck, forerunner of Amazon.com, starts mail-order business

BHP incorporated

establishment of English Historical Review

English International Copyright Act

General Electric Apparatus Company (GEA) founded in UK by Binswanger and Hirst

first Berne Copyright Convention

Coca-Cola syrup invented

Stevenson's Dr Jekyll & Mr Hyde

Arthur D Little founded

Hollerith forms Tabulating Machine Company

section marker     1887

est. 5,400 cash registers in US (increases to 16,900 in 1890)

Felt's calculator

UK telegraph companies control 107,000 miles of submarine cable

celluloid film

Adelaide Stock Exchange opens

US Interstate Commerce Act

Berliner invents phonographic disk

Stainer's Crucifixion

DEG becomes Allgemeine Elektrizitäts Gesellschaft (AEG)

Comptometer multifunction adding machine

Merchandise Marks Act in UK

section marker     1888

Kodak box camera

Hertz proves existence of radio waves

Harlow Bundy creates Bundy Key Recorder

coin-operated public telephone

US judge Thomas Cooley characterises privacy as "the right to be left alone"

Burroughs patents adding machine

Büttner's calculator

Printer's Ink launched as pioneering advertising industry journal

section marker     1889

Hollerith's punch card machine used in US census

Strowger patents automatic telephone exchange

GEA becomes UK General Electric Co (GEC)

Indecent Advertisements Act in UK

Gore's Lux Mundi

Cooper v Stuart

French telephone network is nationalised

Indecent Advertisements Act 1889 in UK

first Official Secrets Act in UK

Gerard Philips becomes AEG representative in The Netherlands

Perth Stock Exchange opens

Galton's Natural Inheritance

section marker     1890

AB Dick markets mimeograph


rotogravure press

Mahan's The Influence of Sea Power Upon History

US National Weather Service (NWS) established

first execution by electric chair

Intergovernmental Organization for International Carriage by Rail

Bollee's calculator

90% of US financial transactions (by value) involve cheques

520 million passengers on US railways

20,000 telephones in Sweden

nationalisation of telephone networks in France

Mannesmann founded

Cooley's characterisation of privacy enshrined in Warren & Brandeis' HLR article on 'The Right To Privacy'

Barings financial crisis in London

section marker     1891

telephoto lens for camera

first telephone link between London & Paris

Hardy's Tess of the D'Urbervilles

Tranby-Croft Affair in UK

Blackpool Tower opened

International Copyright Convention

Gerard Philips establishes incandescent lamp company in Eindhoven, later NV Philips

Canby & Ozias incorporate The Computing Scale Company

section marker     1892

Edison and Dickson invent peepshow Kinetoscope

Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Company

four colour rotary press

enabling legislation for private limited liability companies - Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung (GmbH) - in Germany

portable typewriters

General Electric (GE) formed through merger of Edison General Electric & Thomson-Houston Electric

New Zealand Offensive Publications Act 1892

AT&T connects New York with Chicago by telephone

section marker     1893

financial panic in US

end of Land Boom and financial crisis in Australia

Coca-Cola trademark registered

La Fontaine & Otlet establish Institut international de bibliographie

Steiger's calculator

auto number plates introduced in France

Banca d'Italia founded

Hall's braille writer

Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co case in UK

section marker     1894

Shaw's Mrs Warren's Profession

Marconi invents wireless telegraphy

Kidd's Social Evolution

Yellow Book launched

Dewey's School and Society

section marker     1895

Lumière Bros invent Cinématograph

Hardy's Jude the Obscure

Friese-Greene invents phototypesetting

Wells' The Time Machine

Kellogg's Corn Flakes

Nordau's Degeneration

formation of Navy League in UK

first Times Atlas of the World

Budapest gains first European subway

section marker     1896

first edition of Daily Mail

Henry Ford builds Quadricycle

Underwood model permits typists to see what they are typing

X-ray photography invented

first US cinema opens

UK Locomotives on Highways Act increases speed limit for self-propelled vehicles to 12 mph

British Thomson-Houston formed

section marker     1897

Braun invents cathode-ray tube

Wilkinson v Downton

General Electric creates corporate publicity department

Helmholtz' Die elektromagnetische theorie des lichts

telephone penetration in US is 7 per 1,000 people

Salomon v Salomon & Co Ltd [UK]

William Harbutt invents Plasticine

Durkheim's Suicide

Comité Maritime International founded

Stoker's Dracula

UK telegraph companies control 162,000 miles of submarine cable worth £40m

section marker     1898

photographs taken by artificial light

Wells' The War of the Worlds

New York State passes law against misleading advertising

Compagnie Générale d'Electricité (CGE) established

Northern Electric & Manufacturing (later Nortel) founded

Chicago Mercantile Exchange founded

section marker     1899

loudspeaker invented

electron discovered

Harrington Emerson founds prototype management consulting company

Johan Vaaler invents paperclip

magnetic sound recording

American Marconi Company (forerunner of RCA) founded

Burroughs Adding Machine Company founded

Eiffel Tower

Sprint founded as Brown Telephone Co in Abilene, US

NEC established in Japan

Thorstein Veblen's Theory of the Leisure Class

section marker     1900

Kodak Brownie

est. 1.4 million telephones, 8,000 registered automobiles and 24 million electric light bulbs in US

'television' coined in France

price of 'chemical' wood pulp reaches US$36 per tonne, down from US$344 per tonne in 1866

Jellinek's Allgemeine Staatslehre

establishment of National Physical Laboratory in UK

Marconi forms Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Co in UK

Bell System recapitalised as AT&T (US$120m assets, 0.8m phones)

Colonial Stocks Act in UK

Fairchild forms International Time Recording Company in US

Georg Simmel's Philosophie des Geldes

6,000 accountants in England

130,000 horses working in Manhattan

Bachelier's The Theory of Speculation

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version of May 2004
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