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section heading icon     1861 to 1880

This page of the timeline covers -

section marker     1861

end of Pony Express in US

Allgemeine Deutsche Handelsgesetzbuch (ADHG) in German states

Melbourne Stock Exchange opens

first US transcontinental telegraph completed by Western Union

first colour photography

section marker     1862

US Legal Tender Act

Felthouse v Bindley (UK)

Companies Act in England

Pasteur's Mémoire sur les corpuscules

drawing is sent over a wire by Caselli

Colenso's The Pentateuch Critically Examined

first national paper money in USA

US federal Income Tax introduced

first New Zealand telegraph line runs from Christchurch to Lytletton

32,000 miles of telegraph line and est 5 million messages in US

section marker     1863

UK Post Office Act of 1863 defines telegraph as wire

first metro line in London

National Bank Act in US

Renan's Vie de Jésus

Crédit Lyonnais founded in France

Security from Violence Act (Garrotters' Act) follows 1862 London Garrotting Panic

Banque de dépôt et de crédit des Pays-Bas founded

section marker     1864

United States Telegraph Company formed

Gold Exchange securities market established in New York

Papal Syllabus of Errors

Société Générale founded in France

Marsh's Man & Nature

Geneva Convention

Newman's Apologia pro vita sua

Dagron's Traite de Photographie Microscopique

section marker     1865

Atlantic cable links US and Europe

Carroll's Alice's Adventure in Wonderland

Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank founded

International Telegraph Union (ITU)

establishment of Council of Law Reporting in England

commencement of official law reports in England

Maxwell's Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field

Colonial Laws Validity Act 1865 (Imp)

Nokia established as pulp and paper mill

section marker     1866

first Melbourne Cup race

Pearce v Brooks

Commercial Bank of Australia founded

Haeckel coins 'ecology'

Holt Rinehart Winston founded

Overend Gurney financial crisis in London

first telegraph cable across New Zealand's Cook Strait

Western Union absorbs US Telegraph, American Telegraph and other major US rivals (network is aggregate 37,000 miles)

section marker     1867

Cahalan invents stock ticker

Austro-Hungarian Ausgleich

International Monetary Conference

German Reichstag extends duration of copyright to life plus 30 years

section marker     1868

writing machine first called a 'Type-Writer'

Foster v Mackinnon

Cuba linked to Florida by telegraph cable

UK Telegraph Act 1868 empowers Postmaster General to "acquire, maintain and work electric telegraphs"

UK Registration of Railways Act

Poor's Manual of the Railroads of the United States

Hicklin obscenity case in UK

section marker     1869

establishment of N W Ayer, first US ad agency

R v Welsh [UK]

UK Telegraph Act defines telegraph as "any apparatus for transmitting messages or other communications by means of electric signals"

UK private telegraph companies nationalised

Tokyo linked to Yokohama by telegraph

transcontinental railway completed in US

Suez Canal

Heinz & Noble (later HJ Heinz) founded

Mendeleev's periodic table of elements

Gould attempts to corner gold market

submarine telegraph cable between Hong Kong and Singapore

second Tasmania and Victoria telegraph cable

Société du Câble Transatlantique Française cable links France and US

section marker     1870

stock ticker used by Wall Street

Robinson's The Wild Garden

7.1 million telegrams sent in UK

Western Union introduces telegraphic money order service

first British postcard devised by Anthony Trollope

inauguration of London to Calcutta telegraph line, first electronic link between Europe and India

Papal Infallibility articulated

Wheeler introduces toilet paper roll in US

section marker     1871

Bates establishes first ad agency offering "creative services"

Paris Commune

Chesney's The Battle of Dorking

Sydney Stock Exchange opens

Darwin's The Descent of Man

first Trans-Siberian telegraph line connects Europe with China

Hoe perfects continuous roll press

first newspaper printing of pictures using halftone

Boulton & Park case in UK

Michon founds The Society of Graphology

section marker     1872

simultaneous transmission from both ends of a telegraph wire

Eastern Telegraph Company formed in UK

US$1m budget for advertising Lydia Pinkham's Pink Pills

Overland Telegraph Line links Melbourne to Darwin, with connection to Europe

Paribas founded in France

US federal Income Tax rescinded

section marker     1873

illustrated daily newspaper appears in New York

Eastern Telegraph Company in UK transmits 225,160 words

Northern Pacific railway goes bankrupt

financial crash of 1873

Judicature Act in England

Bagehot's Lombard Street: A Description of the Money Market

Maxwell publishes theory of radio waves

Dewey develops Dewey Decimal System for Amherst College Library

Remington starts manufacturing Sholes' typewriters

typewriters get the QWERTY pseudo-scientific keyboard

Parmalee invents automatic fire sprinklers

US 'Comstock Act' criminalises use of mail for distributing any 'obscene, lewd or lascivious book or other publication of indecent character'

International Meteorological Organization

section marker     1874

Universal Postal Union (UPU) formed

Gorris v Smith

cable links Portugal to Brazil

Banque de l'Indochine founded in France

Glidden patents barbed wire

section marker     1875

mimeograph invented by Edison

Chantrey Bequest in UK

UK Trade Marks Registration Act establishes Trade Marks Registry

section marker     1876

Bell invents telephone

Dickinson v Dodds

first Australia to New Zealand telegraph link

establishment of American Chemical Society

Otto's patent for four-stroke engine

International Office of Weight & Measures

section marker     1877

Charles Cros and Thomas Edison invent phonograph

Petroleum Board securities market established in New York

Siemens & Halske start manufacturing phones in Germany

Wolseley sheep shearing machine patent

first commercial telephone is introduced

telegraph from Adelaide to Perth

section marker     1878

Muybridge photographs horse in motion

Cundy v Lindsay

Scripps newspaper group founded

Locomotive ('Red Flag') Act in UK limits self-propelled vehicles on public roads to 4 miles per hour

cathode ray tube invented by Crookes

first telephone directories are issued

full page newspaper ads

dry-plate photography

online romance foreshadowed in Twain's story The Loves of Alonzo Fitz Clarence and Rosannah Ethelton

Postal & Telegraph Ministry established in France

section marker     1879

Benjamin Day's Benday process assists newspaper illustration

first London telephone exchange opens in Coleman Street

Ella Cheever Thayer's Wired Love

first telephone service in Australia connects Melbourne and South Melbourne offices of Robinson Brothers

Sydney Daily Telegraph appears

Fahlberg patents saccharine

Dahl's 'sulfate' method for practical manufacture of paper from wood pulp

Frege proposes notational system for mechanical reasoning

Bell buys Western Union's telephone operations

UK Amateur Athletics Association founded

first telephone in China

first electric railway (in Berlin)

section marker     1880

first photos in newspapers using halftones

Edison and Swan invent electric light

US-owned telephone companies in UK merge to form United Telephone Company (later National Telephone Co)

Bell Canada founded

first parcel post

establishment of American Society of Mechanical Engineers

first Australian telephone exchange opened in Melbourne

first Australian telephone directory (44 numbers)

first Australian income tax (in Tasmania)

hanging of bushranger Ned Kelly

Gestetner gains patent for Cyclostyle

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version of May 2004
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