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aviation and

section heading icon     aviation

This page considers activity in the air as a point of reference for understanding cyberspace.

It covers -

There is a supplementary note on the aviation and aerospace industries, highlighting general studies and works on particular lines and aerospace companies.

subsection heading icon     introduction

The air and outer space have been portrayed as paradigms for cyberspace - areas of excitement (and boredom), commercial opportunity, political opportunism, danger, international conflict and global rulemaking of varying effectiveness.

subsection heading icon     flight

For an introduction see David Pascoe's Aircraft (London: Reaktion 2004) and Ronald Miller & David Sawers' The Technical Development of Modern Aviation (New York: Praeger 1970).

For airships - in practice the first transcontinental aircraft - see Peter Brooks' Zeppelin: Rigid Airships, 1893-1940 (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press 1992), Guillaume De Syon's Zeppelin!: Germany and the Airship, 1900-1939 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Uni Press 2002), Harold Dick's The Golden Age of Great Passenger Ships: Graf Zeppelin & Hindenburg (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press 1991), Henry Meyer's Airshipmen, Businessmen, & Politics, 1890-1940 (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press 1991), Douglas Robinson's Giants in the Sky: A History of the Rigid Airship (Seattle: Uni of Washington Press 1979) and Dr Eckener's Dream Machine: The Great Zeppelin and the Dawn of Air Travel (New York: Holt 2001) by Douglas Botting.

subsection heading icon     war and peace

Flight offered a mechanism for leaping borders to engage in surveillance, deliver supplies - as in for example the Berlin Airlift - or rain destruction. As a point of entry see William Thompson's On Global War: Historical-Structural Approaches to World Politics (Columbia: Uni of South Carolina Press 1988), Robin Higham's Air Power - A Concise History (New York: St Martin's 1972), Michael Sherry's persuasive The Rise of American Air Power: The Creation of Armageddon (New Haven: Yale Uni Press 1989), John Morrow's The Great War In the Air: Aviation from 1909 to 1921 (Washington: Smithsonian 1993) and John Buckley's Air Power in the Age of Total War (Bloomington: Indiana Uni Press 1999). Alfred Gollin's No Longer An Island (London: Heinemann 1984) considers early thinking in the UK.

Two synoptic accounts of bombing are provided by Winfried Sebald's problematical On The Natural History of Destruction (London: Allen Lane 1999) and Sven Lindquist's A History of Bombing (London: Granta 2002). Norman Polmar's Aircraft Carriers: A Graphic History of Carrier Aviation and Its Influence on World Events (Garden City: Doubleday 1969) considers flat tops.

For the airline industry corporate histories, often centred on executive charisma and occasions of triumph or disaster rather than a searching analysis of markets and corporate performance, abound. Individual works are highlighted here.

Broader studies of particular value are R E Davies' A History of the World's Airlines (London: Oxford Uni Press 1964), , Rigas Doganis' insightful The airline industry in the 21st century (London: Routledge 2001), TA Heppenheimer's Turbulent Skies: The History of Commercial Aviation (New York: John Wiley 1995), Steven Morrison & Clifford Winston's upbeat The Evolution of the Airline Industry (Washington: Brookings 1995), Anthony Sampson's Empires of the Sky: The Politics, Contests & Cartels of World Airlines (New York: Random 1984), JP Hanlon's Global Airlines: Competition in a Transnational Industry (Oxford: Butterworth 1999), Tae Oum & Jong-Hun Park's Globalisation & Strategic Alliances: the Case of the Airline Industry (New York: Pergamon 2000) and Flying the Flag: European Commercial Air Transport Since 1945 (New York: St Martins 1998) edited by Hans Dienel & Peter Lyth.

subsection heading icon     the state, economy and industrial policy

For the USSR see in particular Higham's Russian Aviation and Air Power in the Twentieth Century (London: Frank Cass 1998)

For airline policy see Flying into the Future: Air Transport Policy in the European Union (Northampton: Elgar 1998) edited by John Button & Kingsley Haynes. Flying in the face of Competition: The Policies & Diplomacy of Airline Regulatory Reform 1968-94 (Aldershot: Ashgate 1995) and Peaceful Air Warfare: the United States, Britain & the Politics of International Aviation (New York: Oxford Uni Press 1998) by Alan Dobson are of particular value. For an earlier period see Robert van der Linden's Airlines and Air Mail: The Post Office and the Birth of the Commercial Aviation Industry (Lexington: Uni Press of Kentucky 2001).

Thomas Petzinger's Hard Landing: the Epic Contest for Power & Profits that plunged the Airlines into Chaos (New York: Times 1996) offers a journalistic account of US domestic deregulation, complementing Susan Goldenberg's Troubled Skies: Crisis, Competition & Control in Canada's Airline Industry (Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson 1994) and Donald Whitnah's Safer Skyways: Federal Control of Aviation, 1926-1966 (Ames: Iowa State Uni Press 1966).

Works on the aerospace industry are highlighted here.

subsection heading icon     the experience

Salient works about the early years of powered flight are Robert Wohl's perceptive A Passion For Wings: Aviation & the Western Imagination 1908-18 (New Haven: Yale Uni Press 1994), Peter Fritzsche's A Nation of Flyers: German Aviation & the Popular Imagination (Cambridge: Harvard Uni Press 1992) and Joseph Corn's The Winged Gospel: America's Romance with Aviation (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Uni Press 2002).

An introduction to life aloft (or merely waiting in queues) is provided by Mark Gottdiener's Life in the Air: Surviving the new culture of air travel (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield 2001) and Why I Hate Flying: Tales For the Tormented Traveler (London: Texere 2001) by management great Henry Mintzburg.

section marker     imagination and architecture

For depictions see Aviation in the Cinema (Metuchen: Scarecrow Press 1985) by Stephen Pendo and The Flying Machine & Modern Literature (Bloomington: Indiana Uni Press 1986) by Laurence Goldstein.

Works on the airport as an architectural form include the upbeat Naked Airport: a Cultural History of the World's Most Revolutionary Structure (Chicago: Uni of Chicago Press 2008) by Alastair Gordon, Airspaces (London: Reaktion 2001) by David Pascoe and Politics at the Airport (Minneapolis: Uni of Minnesota Press 2008) edited by Mark Salter.

subsection heading icon     aviation law

The emergence of aviation law provides a model for the development of the 'law of cyberspace' because it has accommodated expectations about behaviour, commercial relationships, the role of the state, alternative dispute resolution mechanisms and questions of jurisdiction.

Examples of questions that have been successfully addressed include -

  • what is the legal framework for activity in the air, ie beyond the jurisdiction of a particular nation and potentially involving participants from several countries?
  • are there rights of passage through a nation's airspace, with an analogy to broadcasting across borders?

The salient multilateral agreements are -

  • 1929 Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air (Warsaw Convention)
  • 1944 Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention)
  • 1944 International Air Transport Agreement (Transport Agreement)
  • 1944 International Air Services Transit Agreement (Transit Agreement)
  • 1948 Convention on the International Recognition of Rights in Aircraft (Geneva Convention)
  • 1952 Convention on Damage Caused by Foreign Aircraft to Third Parties on the Surface (Rome Convention)
  • 1955 Protocol to Amend the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air signed at Warsaw on 12 October 1929 (The Hague Protocol 1955)
  • 1956 Multilateral Agreement on Commercial Rights of Non-Scheduled Air Services in Europe (Paris Agreement 1956)
  • 1960 Multilateral Agreement relating to Certificates of Airworthiness for Imported Aircraft (Paris Agreement 1960)
  • 1961 Convention, Supplementary to the Warsaw Convention, for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air Performed by a Person Other than the Contracting Carrier (Guadalajara Convention 1961)
  • 1963 Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft (Tokyo Convention 1963)
  • 1970 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft (Hague Convention 1970)
  • 1971 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation (Montreal Convention 1971)
  • 1975 Additional Protocols No. 1 through 3 to Amend the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air signed at Warsaw on 12 Oct 1929 (Additional Protocols 1975 Amending Warsaw Convention)
  • 1975 Montreal Protocol No. 4 to Amend the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air signed at Warsaw on 12 Oct 1929 as Amended by the Protocol done at The Hague on 28 Sept 1955 (Montreal Protocol No. 4 1975)
  • 1978 Protocol to Amend the Convention on Damage Caused by Foreign Aircraft to Third Parties on the Surface signed at Rome on 7 Oct 1952 (Montreal Protocol 1978).
  • 1984 Protocol Relating to an Amendment to the Convention on International Civil Aviation [Article 3 bis - Non-use of weapons against civil aircraft in flight)
  • 1988 Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving International Civil Aviation, Supplementary to the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation done at Montreal on 23 September 1971 (Montreal Supplementary Protocol 1988)
  • 1988 International COSPAS-SARSAT Programme Agreement
  • 1991 Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detection
  • 1999 Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules for International Carriage by Air (Montreal Convention 1999)
  • 2001 Convention on International Interests in Mobile Equipment (Cape Town Convention on Mobile Equipment 2001)

For a crisp introduction to the Australian regime see Ronald Bartsch's Aviation Law In Australia (Pyrmont: Lawbook Co 2004).


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version of July 2008
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